The abolition of tariffs on transatlantic trade; Negotiations were expected to be concluded by the end of 2014, but economist Hosuk Lee-Makiyama said there were at least four or five years of additional negotiations left by the end of the year.  In November 2014, the Bulgarian government announced that it would not ratify the agreement unless the United States lifted the visa requirement for Bulgarian citizens.  The texts of the TTIP agreement are drawn up by 24 joint working groups between the EU and the US, each taking into account a separate aspect of the agreement. Development usually takes a number of phases. First, large-scale position papers will be exchanged, introducing each party`s objectives and ambitions for each aspect. This is followed by proposals for texts from both parties, accompanied (in areas such as tariffs and market access) by the “initial offer” of each party. These negotiations and draft documents can evolve during the different phases of their development. If both parties are ready, a consolidated text will be prepared, with the remaining differences of discussion expressed between brackets. These texts are then closed thematically when a working consensus is reached. However, the agreement will be negotiated as a whole, so that no text of the subject will be finalized until a full consensus has been reached.  A form of transatlantic free trade area was proposed by Chancellor Angela Merkel in the 1990s and again in 2006 in response to the collapse of the Doha global trade negotiations. However, protectionism on both sides can be an obstacle to future agreements.   It was first launched in 1990, when, shortly after the end of the Cold War, the world was no longer divided into two blocs: the European Community (12 countries) and the United States a “transatlantic declaration”.
This necessitated the sustainability of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, as well as annual summits, semi-annual meetings between ministers of state and more frequent meetings between politicians and senior officials. Bilateral trade between the European Union and the United States totaled nearly $1.3 trillion in 2018, with merchandise trade worth $807 billion. The United States exported $319 billion worth of goods to EU member states.